Brief Synopsis: Information regarding hammer toes also referred to as contracted toes a deformity of the 2nd 3rd and 4th toe when bent at the joints. Today's diagnosis is Phalangeal Head Resection, better known as, Arthroplasty for the Toe Joint Deformities. The Original Foot Alignment Socks Relief for bunions, hammer toes, cramps...and tired feet! Medical conditions requiring treatment usually result from arthritic pain and deformity, instability, bunion deformities and tendon and ligament pathology. A podiatric surgeon is a specialist in the treatment of foot and ankle problems. Podiatric surgeons are not medical doctors having instead specialised over their entire graduate and post graduate training and education in studying the foot and ankle in detail, as well as the lower limb and all the associated medical knowledge necessary to safely and expertly diagnose and treat foot and ankle problems. Movement of the foot is controlled by muscles and ligaments of each toe working together. Lack of alignment in muscles and ligaments places pressure on the toe tendons and joints, resulting in a bent, stiff, deformed toe. In many cases, high-heels with a cramped, pointy toe space put a lot of pressure on the foot and lead to the deformity. Hammertoe may also be inherited and may occur regardless of what types of shoes are worn. Arthritis or injury to the toe can contribute to the development of hammertoes. The signs and symptoms exhibited are a toe stuck in the inverted V” position, irritation on the top of the toe joint (swelling, redness, corns), inability to move the toe joint, and pain in the form of soreness at the ball of the foot under the bent toe. Many people who develop symptoms with contracted toes will develop corns, blisters and pain on the top of the toe, where it rubs against the shoe-or between the toes, where it rubs against the adjacent toe. You can also develop calluses on the balls of the feet, as well as cramping, aching and an overall fatigue in the foot and leg. Tight toe boxes and high heels are the biggest culprits. The patient must take some time off work to rest the foot and allow it to heal. Kuwada GT. A retrospective analysis of modification of the flexor tendon transfer for correction of hammer toe. Berstein DA, Gumm D, Weiss M. Dorsolateral approach for hammer toe correction. Mladick RA. Correction of hammer toe surgery deformity by Z-plasty and bone graft. Nishimoto GS, Attinger CE, Cooper PS. Lengthening the Achilles tendon for the treatment of diabetic plantar forefoot ulceration. Philadelphia, PA: Academy of Ambulatory Foot and Ankle Surgery; 2003. Gallentine JW, DeOrio JK. Removal of the second toe for severe hammertoe deformity in elderly patients. Pietrzak WS, Lessek TP, Perns SV. A bioabsorbable fixation implant for use in proximal interphalangeal joint (hammer toe) arthrodesis: Biomechanical testing in a synthetic bone substrate. Schrier JC, Verheyen CC, Louwerens JW. Definitions of hammer toe and claw toe: An evaluation of the literature. It might also be caused by the pressure from a bunion.